What formalities need to be done before Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery?

There are a few formalities that need to be completed before DBS surgery is done:

1) VERIFYING THE DIAGNOSIS:

First and foremost, the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease needs to be confirmed. This is done by a careful history and examination. But in addition, a small therapeutic experiment is also done.

You will be asked to stop taking your Parkinson’s medications for at least 12 hours and come to the hospital in the early morning. There, the neurologist will carefully examine you and give you a score for motor functioning – this is done using a very lengthy scale called the UPDRS-scoring system.

The UPDRS is a very detailed scoring system that quantifies / measures Parkinson’s disease symptoms.

Then, you will be given a significant dose of levodopa, for example: 3 tablets. This dose is usually slightly higher than the dose you are currently taking.

The neurologist will again reexamine you 30 minutes, 1 hour and if needed 1.5 hours after taking the Levodopa tablets. If your UPDRS score improves by 30% or more, it indicates that you are likely to improve after Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery (DBS). The maximal improvement that you see after this large dose of levodopa is likely to be the maximal improvement you can expect after DBS.

2) RULING OUT SEVERE DEPRESSION & COGNITIVE PROBLEMS:

DBS can occasionally worsen Depression. It may sometimes worsen thinking and memory issues. The ideal person for DBS is a well-adjusted individual with no problems with thinking and memory.

That being said, mild depression and thinking problems are very common with Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, the neurologist will ask you to visit a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist to quantify these issues.

Meeting a psychiatrist is a pre-requisite before you have Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery

Provided you do not have severe problems in these areas (e.g. suicidal tendencies), you will be asked to proceed with the rest of the workup.

3) GENERAL CHECKUP:

DBS involves general anesthesia. Therefore, a thorough workup by an anesthetist – including clearances for surgery from cardiologists, chest physicians or other doctors as appropriate – is an essential part of the preparation.

4) SETTING REALISTIC EXPECTATIONS:

This is possibly the most important part. You should be counselled regarding the limitations of DBS. Your counselling will include some of the following concepts:

The main goal of DBS is to increase the number of “good” hours (ON-time) during which you have very good function.

DBS is not a magic bullet. It leads to increased ON-time (4-6 hours on average) and decreased severity of symptoms during the OFF time. On average, after surgery the patient can hope to have 11-12 hours of good functioning during a day. However, even after DBS many patients will still experience fluctuations and OFF-times.

DBS may also cause improvements in some often neglected symptoms such as improving the quality of your sleep.

Deep Brain Stimulation does not improve all symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Some symptoms such as unsteadiness do not respond to DBS treatment. Other symptoms such as freezing while walking may show variable improvement.

DBS does not improve unsteadiness. Physical therapy, especially balance training, can help to prevent falls.

You will need to take some medications even after DBS. The doses of medications after GPi-DBS may remain the same, or may even increase.  Medication doses can be reduced after STN-DBS, but this is done carefully and gradually over 3-6 months.

Programming (described later) can take many months to complete. During this time, the patient can expect gradual recovery of motor function. However, finding the optimum parameters for benefit can take upto 6 months. Periodic reprogramming is usually required.

Patience, regular follow-ups with your doctor, good communication and an excellent working relationship with your doctor are essential for sustained improvement after DBS.

Most patients improve after DBS surgery. Some patients do not show adequate improvement even if the electrode is properly positioned and the programming is done correctly. This happens in all institutions throughout the world. Some, but not all, of these patients may show improvement after advanced programming techniques. The exact reason why some people do not respond adequately is not known but is being vigorously researched throughout the world.

What is the procedure of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery?

You will be asked to stop your medications at least 12 hours before the surgery.

In the initial part of the surgery, you will be awake.

After making sure adequate anesthesia is given to make the skull numb, a thin wire (the electrode) is inserted into the brain – this process is almost painless. The end of the wire is placed in one of two targets: The Sub-thalamic Nucleus, or the Globus Pallidus Interna. The wire is then connected to an electrical stimulator, and that part of the brain is stimulated – again, this is painless.

DBS surgery is a fairly relaxed and slow procedure. You will be able to talk to your neurologist during most of the procedure.

You will then be asked to move your hand with and without the electrical stimulation. Your hand shaking and stiffness will also be recorded. If you show dramatic improvement with electrical stimulation, that confirms that the electrode is in the right position. The wire is fixed in that position.

The same process is then repeated on the other side. The location of both leads is then further confirmed by doing a CT-scan, which is then compared to your MRI – all to make sure that the wires are in the right location.

At this point, the major part of the surgery is over.

Once this part of the process is completed, you will sleep because of the anesthetic medications. During this time, the surgeon will connect the final battery to the wires, and keep the battery below the skin of your chest.

The last part of the surgery is placing the pulse generator/battery below the skin of your chest.

 

The total duration of the surgery is about 4-6 hours.

What are the risks of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery?

Although this is a surgery on the brain, as compared to other surgeries it is relatively minor. Therefore the risks involved are low. But they are not non-existent.

  1. The risk of death is less than 1%
  2. Approximately 5% of patients can have serious complications such as stroke, seizure and infection. But most of the problems are cured with medications. Only 1% of these patients have permanent problems due to these complications, such as permanent weakness on one side of the body.
  3. A few patients have minor problems such as problems in wire connection, or a non-functioning battery. These are easily corrected.

In short, almost about 90-95% of patients do not have any complications during or after the surgery, and the risk of death or permanent problems is very small (less than 2%).

How long is the hospital stay after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery?

About 5 days. Some patients may be discharged home early, while some may be observed for a slightly longer time.

The hospital stay after surgery is usually comfortable, uneventful and somewhat boring.

What should you expect after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery?

Most doctors will not switch on stimulation immediately after the surgery. They will wait for any swelling, post-surgery tiredness or confusion to settle before doing so. Many neurologists will wait for about 4 weeks before switching on stimulation.

However, many people report an improvement in their symptoms even before stimulation is switched on. This improvement is caused by the physical process of electrode insertion into the target area. This effect (non-electrical) is transient, and usually wears off after 4 weeks.

For the first month after discharge, you will meet the Neurosurgeon most often. After that, it will mostly be the Neurologist.

In the initial month, you will keep very regular follow-ups with your neurosurgeon who will check for side-effects such as infection. After 4 weeks / 1 month, you will report for the first programming session with the Neurologist.

What is programming for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)?

The battery that is placed below the skin in the chest is programmable. It can be programmed using a wireless programmer.

Important!
Since they can inadvertently reprogram your DBS system, you should avoid most Airport/supermarket Body scanners, and inform your doctor before getting an MRI or surgery which will utilize electrical devices for hemocoagulation – also called diathermy or electrical cautery.

The doctor can use a hand held device to change various parameters of stimulation including:
1. The exact location that is getting stimulation.
2. The strength of stimulation.
3. The duration of each “pulse” of stimulation and the frequency of these pulses.

In some devices (namely, St. Jude device) it may be possible to set additional parameters so that the current can be “steered” into the area of most benefit, and away from areas whose stimulation can cause side-effects.

DBS programming is a gradual, careful process that can take 3-6 months, and later need minor readjustments with time.

This is an art rather than a science – The most common adjustment is gradually increasing the amplitude of stimulation of the contact that is closest to the target area. However, if this causes side-effects, then a contact slightly away from the target area may be a better choice. Increasing the pulse width instead of the amplitude when more stimulation is needed may lead to the battery lasting for a longer duration. Low frequency stimulation may help with freezing of gait… and so on….

Therefore, you need to be patient during this process. The more you contribute to this process, the more you will benefit from it. Finding the best set of parameters for you will involve a good working relationship between you and the doctor, and can take 3-6 months.

What are the side effects of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)?

As noted before, two problems can become worse after DBS:
1. Psychiatric problems such as severe depression.
2. Problems with thinking and Memory.

Because of this reason, all patients who undergo DBS are screened for this issue. If these issues are not severe before the surgery, usually they are not a problem after the surgery.

What is the success rate of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery?

How long does the improvement with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) last?

Recent research indicates that the improvement with DBS lasts for an extremely long time. We know now that it can last for 10 years and probably much more than that.

Recent research indicates that the benefit from DBS lasts for many years.

As the patients who had DBS implanted grow older, we will have more data on whether it lasts even longer than that. At this point, there is no evidence that DBS “stops working” at any point.